Trang An Landscape Complex
The Trang An scenic spot is an integrated tourist site of UNESCO World Heritage sites in Ninh Binh, Vietnam.
Situated near the southern margin of the Red River Delta, the Trang An Landscape Complex is a spectacular landscape of limestone karst peaks permeated with valleys, many of them partly submerged and surrounded by steep, almost vertical cliffs. Exploration of caves at different altitudes has revealed archaeological traces of human activity over a continuous period of more than 30,000 years. They illustrate the occupation of these mountains by seasonal hunter-gatherers and how they adapted to major climatic and environmental changes, especially the repeated inundation of the landscape by the sea after the last ice age. The story of human occupation continues through the Neolithic and Bronze Ages to the historical era. Hoa Lu, the ancient capital of Viet Nam, was strategically established here in the 10th and 11th centuries AD. The property also contains temples, pagodas, paddy-fields and small villages.
Trang An proves the final stages of karst evolution in humid tropical climates. The geomorphological diversity present in the Trang An Spectacular Complex is the result of continuous geologic activity over hundreds of millions of years from the Triassic to the Quaternary. During this very period, the geomorphic collapse and high division of Karst massifs of huge sedimentary lime occurred here. It is these geological events that have created the wild and captivating mountains, sedimentary valleys and pits that together have resulted in a variety of forms, geomorphological geologic caves And the water systems of the Trang An Scenic Complex.
Trang An is of great scientific significance in a landscape, presenting the transitional forms of conical limestone mountains connected to each other by the sharp peaks and the limestone pyramids of the classical tower standing on the plains. Alluvial formations represent different stages of the landform evolution that are taking place during the karst erosion cycle. A series of invasive tangs found on the cliffs, which are related to caves, surfacing grounds, beach sediments and marine mollusks, reveal evidence of past sea advances. Along with the elevated mass of the mountain, these characteristics can be observed at about 50 meters above sea level. There are few landscapes in the world and no corresponding karst area can give evidence of sea level fluctuations taking place through a long and clear geological stage such as in Trang'an.